Volume 5: Issue 1 ( JAN-JUNE, 2024)


HUMAN CANCER CELLS LINE AND THEIR USES IN RESEARCH

Human cancer cell lines are invaluable tools in cancer research, playing a pivotal role in signalling the complexities of tumor biology, investigating signalling pathways, drug discovery, and exploring immunotherapy approaches. Despite their limitations, they have significantly contributed to our understanding of cancer and have been instrumental in the development of new treatments. The emergence of advanced technologies, such as organoid cultures, organ-on-a-chip systems, and single-cell analysis, holds great promise for overcoming the limitations of traditional cell line models and providing more physiologically relevant platforms. These advancements have the potential to revolutionize cancer research, enhance our understanding of tumor heterogeneity, and pave the way for personalized medicine. With ongoing improvements in standardization and quality control, human cancer cell lines will continue to be indispensable in driving future advancements and improving patient outcomes in the battle against cancer.

Aarti , Anamika , Dr. Vandana Sharma

Modification in Gene Expression of CCR5 Co-Receptor and Down Regulation of Virion Molecule with Primary Human T- cell in HIV Infection

About 1 2% of population in western European white people are resistant to hiv-1 infection due to modified gene of ccr5 receptor molecule. Modification of ccr5 receptor gene blocks the virion molecule to enter into the host cell. Mutations gene lead to slow progress rate of infection and low expression of cd4 + T cell. The hypothesis of researcher is that the modified allogeneic transplant with modified M303/M303 gene in ccr5 leads to resistant for HIV and AIDS patient. Deletion of gene in ccr5 receptor develops the ability of resistant with HIV-1. Down regulation of ccr5 receptor with macrophages T cell reduce the immune response and lead to slow progressive rate of infection. Different gene-editing methods are involved in ccr5 gene editing such as TALEN, ZFN, and CRISP/Cas. Mutant gene transplant in ccr5 receptor prevent the further exposure of dangerous retrovirus. As comparison of heterogeneous and homogenous .The heterogeneous analogues has more resistance as compare to homogenous genetic order. Chemokine and inflammatory mediator are the less active in heterogeneous. The homozygous mutation in ccr5 gene (ccr5∆32) base pair deletion induces nonfunctional ccr5 receptor and heterogonous mutation has resistant of HIV 1 and slow progressive effect

Dr. Bimal Singh, Dr. Sonalal Prasad Kushwaha, Tulsi Singh, Aakriti Gupta


A Study on Health Profile of 3 ITDA Spots of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India

Introduction: The Adivasi, often referred to as Indigenous people or original inhabitants, constitute approximately 17 million prospective tribes in India. The term “designated Tribe” holds a legal designation. According to the 2011 census, the number of planned tribes in India is 104,281,034, which equals 8.6% of India’s total population. This paper aims to examine the health profile of Tribals in 3 ITDA spots of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh. Objectives: The main aim of the study was to assess the health profile and shed light on the top 10 diseases prevalent in the 3 selected ITDA spots of Kurnool district, as well as to promote the Unani system through mobile medical camps under the Tribal Sub Plan (TSP). Additionally, it aims to analyse the health profile and determinants of tribes in the study area. Methodology: This study focuses on the health profile of the 3 ITDA spots based on OPD data, including the distribution of patients by sex and age groups, and identifying the top 10 common diseases in these areas. Results: A total of 2583 individuals attended the OPD of the 3 ITDA spots in the year 2022-2023. Among them, the top 10 diseases were identified, and their distribution by sex and age group was analysed. Conclusion: The present study revealed that most of the tribals in the study area suffered from Sual o surfa (Cough), Sardi wa Zukam (Common cold & coryza), and Humma (Fever), which are common in the 3 ITDA spots, followed by Warm I Halaq (Pharyngitis), Suda (Headache), and Polyarthritis.

Dr M Shamshad , Dr M Ramesh , Dr Jawadul Haq , Dr S Shaista Tabassum

Socio-Demographic and Health Profile of Scheduled Tribes of Six Integrated Tribal Development Agency Spots in Kurnool District

Introduction: A tribe is a self-contained, homogeneous group that exists independently of any hierarchical system. According to the 2011 census, 10.42 crore Indians are identified as ‘Scheduled Tribes’, comprising 8.6% of the country’s total population and 11.3% of the rural population. Tribal habitations are scattered across vast areas with limited access to basic health necessities, rendering them vulnerable to various health hazards. This article focuses on demographic profiles such as age, gender, caste, religion, marital status, educational status, occupation, dietary habits, and addiction, enabling an assessment of the socio-economic and health status of tribal groups in the specified area. Objectives: The main objectives of the study were to conduct a socio-demographic survey, promote knowledge on disease prevention, and provide healthcare and free medication facilities through Unani medicine via mobile medical camps. Methodology: The study was conducted in six Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA) spots inhabited by the Sugali or Lambada tribe of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, characterized by low socio-economic status. Data was collected through door-to-door surveys and a pre-designed questionnaire provided by CCRUM. Results: A total of 3755 individuals were screened, of which 450 were selected for data collection. Among the 450 individuals, the majority were males (253 i.e., 56.22%) belonging to the Hindu religion, with 98.44% being Scheduled Tribes. Educational status was average, with 63.33% being illiterate. More than half of the individuals (51.55%) were married, and the majority (52.66%) were agricultural laborers, with almost all being non-vegetarians. Additionally, 26% of individuals were addicted to smoking. Conclusion: Common challenges faced by the Sugali tribes of Kurnool district include lack of resources, industrialization, and socio-economic factors such as illiteracy. These factors contribute to poverty, malnutrition, and various physical and psychological disorders among tribal communities.

Dr S Shaista Tabassum , Dr Jawadul Haq , Dr M Ramesh , Dr M Shamshad

Immunological compounds for cancer therapy

In recent years, cancer therapy has envolved from traditional methods such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, including immuno-oncology (IO) This innovative approach uses the body the immune system’s role in fighting cancer cells has shown exceptional success. Biomarker testing, particularly PD-L1, is now mandatory before treatments such as pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for lung, stomach, head and neck cancer, and atezolizumab (Tecentriq) for cervical and endometrial cancer cancer but PD-L1 is important for other cancers is uncertain and Despite progress, challenges in managing the side effects and high costs of IO persist, causing concern for the NHS and other healthcare systems. Furthermore, the IO pipeline includes promising CAR-T cell therapies and cancer therapies, although these present unique toxicity and cost challenges. Immunotherapies can be used as a delivery mechanism by attaching a monoclonal antibody to a chemotherapy drug to make an antibody drug conjugate (ADC). The antibody seeks out and hones in on a specific molecule on the tumor cell, bringing the chemotherapy with it

Dr. Ram Garg , Gurucharan Singh , Lokendar Rathore , Dr. Mukesh kumar Sharma

Sexual deception used by individuals to initiate sexual engagement with their current or potential partner

Sexual deception, the deliberate manipulation of information regarding one’s sexual identity, preferences, and intentions, is a complex phenomenon prevalent in intimate relationships. This research aims to delve into the intricate dynamics of sexual deceit, exploring the connection between male and female perspectives in sexual relationships. The study delves into the reasons behind sexual deception, examining why males are perceived as more manipulative compared to females and how gender influences deceptive practices in sexual contexts. The paper posits that individuals utilize deceptive tactics, including sexual deception, to enhance intimacy in relationships, driven by desires for gratification, fear of rejection, and the pursuit of personal goals. Utilizing the Sexual Deception Scale developed by Marelich et al. (2008), the research uncovers insights into the different dimensions of sexual deception, including blatant lying, self-serving tactics, and avoiding confrontation. Physical beauty plays a major role in sexual deception. Lack of sex in life can cause problems like isolation, self- doubt and trust. Through a comprehensive analysis of the scale’s subscales and total scores, the study sheds light on the prevalence of deceptive practices in intimate relationships and the gender disparities in manipulative behaviors.

Ms. Janhavi Sarvashresth , Dr. Prakriti Sushmita

A review on antibiotic resistance

Antibiotics are ‘wonder drugs’ when it comes to fighting microorganisms. For decades, many antibiotics have been used not only for medicinal purposes but also for preventive use in other industries such as agriculture and livestock. There has certainly been, because microorganisms have become those resistant to conventional antibiotics while the patient is still unaware of emerging resistant. It turns out we have learned that antibiotic resistance is increasing at an alarming rate.A growing list of diseases, ie.pneumonia,tuberculosis and whooping cough, are difficult and sometimes impossible to treat when antibiotics are ineffective Resistance to infections is related to the number of antibiotics used relationships. Microbial resistance is driven by the extrajudicial use of antibiotics. There is a shortage of existing or emerging multidrug-resistant antibiotics, resulting in significant reported morbidity and mortality. This review article further highlights the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis against human animal health viruses in preventing antimicrobial resistance. Evidence from the literature suggests that knowledge about antibiotic resistance in the population is still low. Therefore, patients and the public should be educated to fight the virus

Dr. Ram Garg , Gurucharan Singh ,Lokendar Rathore , Dr. Vandana Sharma , Mohamad Salman

Comprehensive study on pongamia glabra vent. Seed oil: extraction, characterization, and antifungal activity assessment

Dandruff remains a prevalent issue globally, impacting individuals across diverse demographics. Its manifestation, characterized by the shedding of scalp skin cells leading to visible flakes, presents in dry and oily forms, each with distinct attributes. While the prevalence peaks during puberty, various factors such as humidity, trauma, and stress exacerbate symptoms. Malassezia yeast overgrowth, thriving in sebum-rich areas, plays a pivotal role, with environmental triggers further complicating the condition. Addressing dandruff necessitates multifaceted approaches, including understanding its pathophysiology and exploring diverse treatment modalities. This study focuses on Pongamia glabra Vent. seed oil, commonly known as karanj oil, extracted via a comprehensive methodology involving hydrodistillation and cold expression techniques. Characterization of the oil revealed specific properties, including appearance, odor, taste, solubility, and specific gravity, essential for evaluating its quality and suitability for various applications. Additionally, screening for antifungal activity against Malassezia furfur demonstrated promising results, with karanj oil exhibiting significant efficacy, highlighting its potential as a natural alternative for combating fungal infections associated with dandruff.

Inderjeet , Anil Sharma , Manmohan Sharma , Rajiv Kukkar

Herbal sunscreen development: spf, antioxidants, comparative analysis

Introduction: The effective sun protection amidst growing concerns about UV radiation’s impact on skin health, the integration of ancient herbal wisdom with modern scientific advancements has gained prominence. This convergence has led to a renewed interest in herbal skincare formulations as alternatives to conventional sunscreens. Rooted in centuries-old medicinal practices, herbal remedies offer a promising avenue for shielding the skin from UV damage while nourishing it with botanical benefits. Objective: This study aims to develop herbal sunscreen creams enriched with polyphenols from Lemon, Tomato, and Aloe vera, evaluate their SPF, assess antioxidant activity, and compare their efficacy with commercial formulations, offering insights into their potential as natural sun protection alternatives. Materials and Methods: The study utilized Lemon (Citrus limon), Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) extracts as primary ingredients. Extraction methods were employed to obtain bioactive compounds from each plant, followed by phytochemical screening to identify their chemical constituents. The sunscreen formulations were prepared by combining these extracts with excipients such as cetostearyl alcohol, stearic acid, and carbopol. Various physical parameters, SPF values, and antioxidant activity were evaluated to assess the formulations’ efficacy and stability.

Pawan Swami , Ani Sharma , Manmohan Sharma , Rajiv Kukkar

Modern herbal gel formulation: physicochemical evaluation and efficacy testing for dermatological applications

This study investigates the development of a modern herbal gel formulated with Punica granatum extracts for dermatological applications, with a focus on addressing acne. By employing a comprehensive methodology involving phytochemical screening, chromatographic analysis, antimicrobial testing, and formulation evaluation, we aimed to create a topical product that is both safe and effective. Our results reveal promising pharmacognostical properties of Punica granatum extracts, including acceptable ash values and extractive values, indicating the quality and potency of the herbal material. Additionally, chromatographic analysis provided valuable insights into the chemical composition of the extracts, facilitating standardization and quality control. The formulated gel exhibited significant anti-acne activity against P. acnes, demonstrating notable inhibitory effects. Moreover, physical characterization highlighted favorable properties such as appropriate pH, viscosity, spreadability, texture, and appearance, crucial for ensuring patient compliance and efficacy. Stability studies suggested the potential for a shelf-stable product with resilience to environmental factors over time. Furthermore, in vitro release studies indicated controlled and sustained release of active ingredients from the gel formulation, supporting its efficacy and longevity upon application.

Sourav Khawas, Manmohan Sharma , Rajiv Kukkar , Anil Sharma

Exploring the photoprotective potential of calendula officinalis l. Essential oil in skincare

The study investigated the potential of Calendula officinalis L. essential oil in skincare formulations with sun protection properties. A comprehensive methodology encompassed extraction, characterization, formulation, and evaluation of the oil’s efficacy. Physicochemical parameters assessment indicated favorable results, with GC-MS analysis identifying twenty-two compounds, notably 1,8 cineole and α-pinene, with antioxidant properties suggesting UVB protection. Formulation of stable oil-in-water creams containing 1-5% Calendula oil exhibited no phase separation and maintained viscosity, highlighting robust physical stability. In vitro SPF testing demonstrated significant sun protection activity, particularly in formulations with higher oil concentrations. The study supports Calendula-based formulations as promising natural alternatives for sun protection in cosmetics, offering a sustainable approach without synthetic additives.

Jay Chandra , Rajiv Kukkar , Anil Sharma , Manmohan Sharma

Understanding the impact of uv radiation on skin health: mechanisms, risks, and photoprotection strategies

This comprehensive review examines the intricate relationship between UV radiation and skin health, delving into its mechanisms, associated risks, and potential photoprotection strategies. Drawing from centuries of herbal medicine and cosmetic practices, the efficacy of antioxidant-rich herbs in shielding against UV radiation-induced damage is highlighted. Studies showcasing the protective properties of plant extracts, such as green and black tea polyphenols and aloe vera formulations, underscore the potential of botanicals in skincare. The rise of herbal sunscreens in response to growing concerns over UV exposure reflects a paradigm shift in skincare practices. The review elucidates the diverse effects of UV radiation on the skin, encompassing sunburns, premature aging, and skin cancer development. Mechanisms underlying UVB-induced skin damage, including collagen breakdown, generation of free radicals, and interference with DNA repair mechanisms, underscore the imperative of implementing protective measures. The role of antioxidants in mitigating UV-induced damage and the development of innovative sunscreen formulations underscores ongoing efforts to enhance photoprotection strategies. Furthermore, the review underscores the multifaceted nature of UV radiation’s impact on skin health, emphasizing the importance of holistic approaches to photoprotection. Future research endeavors aimed at exploring novel photoprotective agents and assessing their efficacy in preserving skin health will be instrumental in mitigating the adverse effects of UV radiation and fostering overall skin well-being.

Jay Chandra , Rajiv Kukkar, Anil Sharma, Manmohan Sharma

A review on potential health benefits of beetroot

Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) is celebrated for its culinary versatility and abundant bioactive compounds, offering a myriad of health benefits. This review delves into its therapeutic applications, food processing, preservation methods, and emerging nanoformulation strategies. With its rich composition of minerals, amino acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, betaxanthins, and betacyanins, beetroot stands out as a functional food with antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and analgesic properties. Of particular interest are betalains and nitrates, key bioactive components in beetroot. Betalains combat oxidative stress, prevent DNA damage, and exhibit antitumor effects, while nitrates contribute to reducing blood lipids, glucose, and pressure, as well as enhancing athletic performance. These compounds showcase beetroot’s potential in combating various health conditions, from cardiovascular diseases to cancer. The uses of beetroot go beyond just eating it raw; they are widely employed in the food business as a natural food coloring and in other high-quality goods. Beetroot powder, obtained through drying methods, is highly versatile in applications such as beverages, jams, candies, and processed meats. Moreover, its leaves, containing beta-carotene and other carotenoids, provide additional nutritional benefits. Research efforts are focused on maximizing the nutritional quality of beetroot and its by-products through various extraction methods, while exploring new avenues like nanoformulations to further enhance its therapeutic potential. It will take further study to completely understand the molecular mechanisms and some diseasespecific effects of beetroot components, but doing so will open the way for more focused therapeutic usage and help realize its promise in improving human health and welfare.

Aarti, Debasmita Sarkar, Kanak Gupta , Shiksha Singh, Aaditya

DNA methylation sequencing: a promising tool for pancreatic cancer diagnosis

Pancreatic cancer remains a deadly disease due to late diagnosis and limited treatment options. DNA methylation, a key epigenetic modification, plays a crucial role in cancer development and progression. Various research using DNA methylation patterns in pancreatic cancer tissues resulted in comparative evaluation of normal pancreas and cell lines resulted in the identification of potential biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy. During DNA methylation case studies led to identification 807 genes and 1505 CpG sites. Also, 289 differentially methylated CpG sites were also reported suggesting their vital contribution towards pancreatic cancer. In current review tried to explore the methylation approaches to identify important genes linked to gemcitabine, a common chemotherapy drug, identifying potential markers for patient response. This study sheds light on the link between DNA methylation and pancreatic cancer, paving the way for novel therapeutic targets and improved patient outcomes.

Rohan Kumar, Harsimran Kaur Hora , Priyangulta Beck , Annie Jessica Toppo, Dinesh Kumar , Shristi Kumari , Pinki Raj Sahu, Swati Shalika, Mukesh Nitin

Formulation and evaluation of timolol maleate ophthalmic solution using various preservatives

Preservatives provide important and necessary antimicrobial activity and plays very important role in maintaining the sterility and shelf-life of multi-dose formulations of topical ophthalmic medications. Any drop delivered in a multi-dose format must have some mechanism for maintaining the sterility of the contents throughout its intended length of use. In topical preparations, antimicrobial activity is most often achieved through the addition of preservatives. The most commonly used preservative in topical drops of any form is benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Whilst it is known to be an effective antimicrobial agent, demonstrating efficacy against a wide variety of common pathogens, considerable evidence, often from its use in glaucoma medications, also exists detailing the deleterious effects it has on the ocular surface, particularly when used over an extended period of time. It can be argued that the undesirable effects of BAK have contributed to a movement into preservative-free topical preparations. BAK is quaternary ammonium compound and this compound has been shown to cause tear film instability, loss of goblet cells, conjunctival squamous metaplasia and apoptosis, disruption of the corneal epithelium barrier, and damage to deeper ocular tissues.

Garvendra Singh Rathore, Shailesh Sharma, Sunaina Kumari

Nutraceuticals: revolutionizing healthcare in 21st century

Nutraceuticals, a blend of “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical,” encompass foods or components crucial for maintaining normal bodily functions in healthy individuals. They offer health advantages, often serving as alternatives to conventional medicine. Fruits and vegetables rich in nutraceutical properties are vital for a balanced diet. The surge in interest in nutraceuticals reflects prevailing population and health trends. Various items, including dietary fibre, prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and herbal/natural foods, fall under the umbrella of the nutraceutical sector, which encompasses functional foods, dietary supplements, and herbal/natural products. India is poised to become a notable player, with analysts anticipating significant expansion in its market, potentially reaching $4-5 billion in the near future and forecasted to rise to approximately $18 billion by 2025. Regulatory measures, such as the FDA’s classification of dietary supplements as foods and India 2006 Food Safety and Standard Act, ensure their safety. Herbal nutraceuticals are pivotal for health maintenance and disease prevention, aiming for optimal health, longevity, and enhanced quality of life. This overview comprehensively categorizes nutraceutical types and illustrates their applications in treating various ailments. Additionally, it addresses the significance and challenges in designing delivery systems for nutraceuticals, fostering better quality of life and fueling innovative research endeavours in the emerging fields.

Aliya Rehmani, Dharmendra Singh Chauhan, Mithilesh Singh,Rajesh Kumar Sharma

Traumatic brain injury and its management

A prevalent illness with a high morbidity and death rate is head injuries. Early detection and evacuation are crucial for serious cerebral hemorrhages in order to optimize the likelihood of independent recovery. It isthe primary cause of death for children and young people and a significant medical and socioeconomic issue. The Brain Trauma Foundation’s “Guidelines for the Management of this disease” are a major source of inspiration for critical care management of this injury. The primary goals are to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), optimize cerebral oxygenation, and prevent and cure intracranial hypertension and secondary brain injuries. The care management of (TBI) will be covered in this review, with particular attention paid to monitoring, preventing and minimizing subsequent brain insults, and optimizing cerebral oxygenation and CPP. The influences of worrying mind damage can be profound and lengthy-lasting, affecting all aspects ofsomeone’slife. However, with suitable assist, rehabilitation, and adaptive techniques, many individuals with TBI are capable of lead pleasant and significant lives.

Urvashi Pal, Dr. Sachin Tyagi, Dr. Ram Garg

A study of malaria in nagaland state of india

The Annual Parasite Incidence (API) of Malaria for Nagaland has been observed to be decreasing from 2018 till 2020 when it reached 0.01. Although the state did not reach zero Malaria cases in 2020, it is a good candidate for being the first state in the country to be able to achieve near-elimination goals.

Dr Arvind Nath

Therapeutic benefits and processing of marigold (tagetes species)

Marigold (Tagetes species) has been used for centuries in traditional medicine and more recently in modern therapeutic applications. This review comprehensively examines the therapeutic benefits and processing methods of various Tagetes species. It explores the phytochemical composition of marigolds, focusing on key bioactive compounds such as lutein, zeaxanthin, and essential oils. The review discusses the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and wound-healing properties of marigold extracts, supported by in vitro and in vivo studies. Potential applications in ophthalmology, dermatology, and cancer prevention are also covered. Various processing techniques, including advanced extraction methods, are evaluated for their efficiency in isolating bioactive compounds. Additionally, the safety and toxicity profiles of marigold preparations are addressed, along with their potential interactions with conventional medications. The review examines current market trends and future prospects for marigoldbased products in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. This comprehensive review aims to provide researchers, healthcare professionals, and industry stakeholders with a thorough understanding of the therapeutic potential and processing considerations of Tagetes species, highlighting areas for future research and development.

Dilip Kumar Mishra, Shashikant Singh, Prashant Singh