Volume 4: Issue 1 ( JAN-JUNE, 2023)


Measurement of essential process parameters that impact critical quality characteristics is at the heart of process analytical technology (PAT), which is used in the design, analysis, and control of pharmaceutical production processes. Physical and Chemical Attribute Testing (PAT) ensures high quality raw materials (i.e. at off-line, on-line, in-line). With PAT, we move away from testing the structures themselves and instead test the goods themselves at various stages of production.

Rakhi Kumari, Rajat Kumar, Amit Bisht, Vivek Sharma

Assessment of Pain and Functional Outcome between Intra-Articular Corticosteroids and Platelet Rich Plasma (Prp) in Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

Background-Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent type of arthritis, which significantly impacts the patient’s mobility and quality of life. Although pharmacological treatments like corticosteroids can provide immediate pain relief and enhance mobility and quality of life for osteoarthritis patients, their long-term effectiveness is limited.

Dimple Narkhede, Dibyendu debnath, Rajesh Kumar Gurjar, Piyush Khandelwal


Dyslipidaemia and hypertension are major cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Indian population experiences the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between lipid profiles in hypertensive patients with normotensive control subjects in patients attending NIMS Hospital, Jaipur Rajasthan. A single-Center, case-control hospital based study was carried out among 140 participants (eighty (80) patients were included in the study) from January 2021 to June 2022 in National Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Dr. Goyani Rudra Pravinkumar, Dr. Ganpat Devpura

Clinico-epidemiological Profile of Geriatric Patients Presenting With Heart Failure: A Hospital Based Study.

Heart Failure (HF) is a chronic complex clinical condition that results from any structural or functional (systolic or diastolic) impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. It has currently increased in prevalence with 64.34 million cases, accounting for 9.91 million years of healthy life lost due to disability (YLDs). Aim: This research was conducted to study the clinico-epidemiological profile of heart failure in geriatric patients.

Dr. Shantanu Vats, Dr. Eshan Sharma


Because of its natural origin and significant therapeutic value, the usage of medicinal plants has grown in prominence. Many unique phytochemical components with significant pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic properties, may be found in the various species of the genus Cassia. These compounds can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions. This paper discusses the significance of the genus Cassia and many experimental studies done on diverse species of this genus that can help develop a new herbal medication. Keywords: Cassia, Phytoconstituents, Pharmacological Activity, Medicinal Plant

Ratsongja Tokbi, Girish Kumar Vyas, Hariom Sharma, Anil Sharma, Manmohan Sharma


Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes TB, is an infectious disease that affects the lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis) and other organs (extra pulmonary tuberculosis). Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the risk factor and the treatment of tuberculosis. Aim: Studying the risk factors and treatment options for tuberculosis is the goal. Objectives: Finding out the risk factors for pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis, identifying the many types of extra pulmonary tuberculosis, and researching the various treatment options for pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis are among the objectives of this study

T. Sabina, Balakrishnan S, Nachiappan M3, Gopinath B S

A Case Report of Infantile Hemangioma of Upper Lip Affecting Breathing and Breastfeeding. .

Infantile hemangioma is a benign tumor of vascular endothelium in children which can be treated by laser therapy, drug therapy, and surgery. In most cases, hemangioma doesn’t require any intervention as it fades over time. We present a case of infantile hemangioma of the upper lip which affected the baby’s breastfeeding and breathing. The infant was treated initially with oral propranolol for 3 days and then switched to ointment timolol to continue for 9 months. Advised to have a regular visit to OPD (out-patient department) for further monitoring.

Swathi M , Swetha Gopan , Shibendra Mandal , Dr. Chandrasekhar Gouli

Drug Utilization Pattern and Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring of Antibiotics use in Ear, Nose and Throat Infection at Tertiary Care Hospital, Lucknow, India .

Objective: To investigate the ENT department's (OPD, IPD) antibiotic prescribing practices at a tertiary care hospital in Lucknow, India. Material and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, non-experimental (observational) study was performed in (OPD, IPD) department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) over a period of 6 months. Result: In this study, 100 ENT patients (51 male, 49 female) were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Ear infections were the most common reason for visits (86 patients), followed by nose (7 patients) and throat infections (5 patients). The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were β-lactam antibiotics, with penicillin's (amoxicillin with clavulanic acid) and cephalosporin's (cefixime) being the most commonly used. Combination therapy was used in 100 patients, with an average of 1.9 antibiotics per patient per course. A total of 40 antibiotics were prescribed, with oral being the most common route of administration. Only one adverse drug reaction was reported, with a suspected link to cefixime causing an increase in rashes in one patient. The study population had comorbid conditions of anxiety, epilepsy, and anaemia. Conclusions: To conclude, our study in the university teaching hospital (IIMSR) highlighted lesser utilization of antibiotics in ENT infections, as some of the ENT infections are not due to bacteria. The majority of ENT patients admitted to the hospital appear to have bacterial infections, and most of them reacted favourably to antibiotic treatment. Majority of the patients used the regimen in accordance with the current guidelines.

Syed Adeel Hasan Naqvi, Dr. Md Afroz Ahmad, Mr. Md Sohel Akhtar, Anshika Yadav, Aparna Singh, Javed Ahmed, Abu Raihan Shams

Use of Segment Anything Model (SAM) and MedSAM in the optic disc Segmentation of colour retinal fundus images: Experimental Finding .

Detection of Optic Disc segmentation in retinal fundus images is important step in identification of various abnormal conditions like diabetic retinopathy, Glaucoma etc. and is an important part of eye that is routinely examined. We have used Segment Anything model (SAM) by Meta AI and based fine-tuned model MedSAM for segmentation of optic disc in retinal fundus images. We have used Indian Diabetic Retinopathy dataset (IDRiD) segmentation part. It consists of 81 original colour fundus images in jpg files split into train and test set. Ground-truth images for the lesions (Microaneurysms, Haemorrhages, Hard Exudates and Soft Exudates divided into train and test set - TIF Files) and Optic Disc (divided into train and test set - TIF Files). This dataset is feed into the deep learning neural network model; Segment Anything Model (SAM) and MedSAM for the image segmentation task. The Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is used in the experiment for observing the model performance. We have used 80% for training and 20% for testing of Indian Diabetic Retinopathy Dataset (IDRiD) in both models. After 100 epochs with 32 batch size it is observed that average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of SAM and MedSAM models in the optic disc segmentation task are, 85.97 % and 90.15 %. Also, in finding it is observed that SAM and MedSAM both have very low DSC where the fundus images are having very high brightness.

Ravi Bhushan Bhardwaj , Dr. Anum Haneef